Articles

EVOLUTION OF SENSORY ANTENNAL STRUCTURES IN THE ENSIGN SCALE INSECTS (HEMIPTERA COCCOMORPHA ORTHEZIIDAE)


Abstract


The Ortheziidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha) are considered one of the most ancient families of Coccoidea. In this study, the antennal structures of species belonging to the Ortheziidae are examined and combined with data from a previous phylogenetic study as well as habitat preference data. Illustrations of the antennal structures (with a focus on the distribution of setae and specialized sensilla) for the type species of all genera in the Ortheziidae are provided. The three main ortheziid lineages can be recognized by their sensilla: (i) the Ortheziinae all possess coeloconic sensilla; (ii) the Newsteadiinae, which only includes Newsteadia, is characterized by a different type of coeloconic sensilla, here named Newsteadia-type coeloconic sensilla, and (iii) a clade that includes the Mixortheziinii, Nipponortheziini and Ortheziolini, all possess only basiconic sensilla.


Keywords

thermoreceptor, hygroreceptor, leaf litter, hypogeal insect, habitat

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