Phenotypic diversity of farmer’s traditional maize (Zea mays L) varieties in Cote d’Ivoire


Primitive cultivars and their wild relatives are an invaluable heritage for humanity. They must be preserved, stud- ied and used to increase agricultural production. This study aims at assessing the phenotypic diversity of 118 maize (Zea mays L) accessions collected Côte d’Ivoire. The test was conducted in Ferkessédougou (north of Côte d’Ivoire) during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 rainy seasons. It was implanted in a square lattice design 11 x 11, repeated three times. Twenty-two quantitative variables were measured. From the results, it appeared that there was significant morphological variability among accessions. The multivariate analyses (Principal Components Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) enabled to structure this diversity into five groups. Days to 50 % silk- ing and to 50 % tasselling, ear insertion height, plant height, number of leaves below the uppermost ear, and ear parameters are those that best explain the agro-morphological diversity. The different groups obtained can serve as a starting point for the definition of a core collection. They offer a wide possibility of choice of breeding lines for the creation of improved maize varieties adapted to the different agro-climatic zones of Côte d’Ivoire


Côte d’Ivoire, phenotypic diversity, maize, Zea mays L

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