Research papers

Ozone dynamics in a Mediterranean Holm oak forest: comparison among transition periods characterized by different amounts of precipitation


Abstract


Tropospheric ozone (O3) is one of the most toxic compounds for plants in the atmosphere. The large amount of anthropogenic O3 precursors in the urban areas promote O3 formation, thus making Mediterranean forests located in periurban areas particularly vulnerable to this pollutant. O3 flux measurements have been carried out using the Eddy Covariance technique over a Holm oak forest located 25 Km from Rome downtown, inside the Presidential Estate of Castelporziano (Italy).Two transition periods - early Spring and late Fall - in two consecutive years were examined. The uncommon low precipitation recorded in both transition periods in 2012 allowed to evaluate the influence of water availability on O3 fluxes during seasons which are not commonly affected by drought stress.Overall, the forest canopy showed to be a net sink of O3, with peak values of mean daily O3 fluxes of -8.9 nmol m-2s-1 at the beginning of flowering season and -4.6 nmol  m-2s-1 at the end of Fall.

O3 fluxes were partitioned between stomatal and non stomatal sinks using the evaporative/resistive method based on canopy transpiration in analogy with an Ohm circuit. By comparison of the two years, water availability showed to be an important limiting factor during Spring, since in this season plants are more photosynthetically active and more sensitive to water availability, while in Fall, under conditions of low stomatal conductance,  the dependence on water availability was less appreciated.


Keywords

ozone fluxes; O3; Holm oak; Mediterranean forest; Eddy Covariance; drought stress; pollution

Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12899/asr-801

References


Altimir N., Kolari P., Tuovinen J.-P., Vesala T., Bäck J., Suni T., Kulmala M., Hari P.

- Foliage surface ozone deposition: a role for surface moisture? Biogeosciences Discussions 2: 1739–1793.

Anenberg S.C., Horowitz L.W., Tong D.Q. ,West J.J. 2010 - An estimate of the global burden of anthropogenic ozone and fine particulate matter on premature human mortality using atmospheric modeling. Environmental Health Perspective 118: 1189–1195.

Bauer M.R., Hultman N.E., Panek J.A., Goldstein A.H. 2000 - Ozone deposition to a ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (CA): a comparison of two different climatic years. Journal of Geophysical Research 105: 123-136.

Cieslik S. 2004 - Ozone uptake at various surface types: a comparison between dose and exposure. Atmospheric Environment 38: 2409–2420.

Fares S., Mereu S., Scarascia Mugnozza G., Vitale M., Manes F., Frattoni M., Ciccioli P., Gerosa G., Loreto F. 2009 - The ACCENT-VOCBAS field campaign on biosphere-atmosphere interactions in a Mediterranean ecosystem of Castelporziano (Rome): site characteristics, climatic and meteorological condition and eco-physiology of vegetation. Biogeosciences 6: 1043–1058.

Fares S., McKay M., Holzinger R., Goldstein A.H. 2010 - Ozone fluxes in a Pinus ponderosa ecosystem are dominated by non-stomatal processes: evidence from long-term continuous measurements. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150: 420-431.

Fares S., Weber R., Park J.H., Gentner D., Karlik J., Goldstein A.H. 2012 - Ozone deposition to an orange orchard: Partitioning between stomatal and non-stomatal sinks. Environmental Pollution 169: 258–266.

Fares S., Vargas R., Detto M., Goldstein A.H., Karlik J., Paoletti E., Vitale M. 2013a - Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux measurements. Global Change Biology 19: 2427–2443.

Fares S., Schnitzhofer R., Jiang X., Guenther A., Hansel A., Loreto F. 2013b - Observations of Diurnal to Weekly Variations of Monoterpene-Dominated Fluxes of Volatile Organic Compounds from Mediterranean Forests: Implications for Regional Modeling. Environmental. Science and Technology 47 (19): 11073–11082.

Finlayson-Pitts B.J., Pitts J.N. 1997 - Ozone, airborne toxics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particles. Science 276: 1045–1052.

Fowler D., Pilegaard K., Sutton M.A., Ambus P., Raivone M., Duyzer J., Simpson D., Fagerli H., Fuzzi S., Schjoerring J.K., Grainer C., Neftel A., Isaksen I.S.A., Laj P., Maione M., Monks P.S., Burkhardt J., Daemmgen U., Neirynck J., Personne E., Wichink-Kruit R., Butterbach-Bahl K., Flechard C., Tuovinen J.P., Coyle M., Gerosa G., Loubet B., Altimir N., Gruenhage L., Ammann C., Cieslik S., Paoletti E., Mikkelsen T.N., Ro-Poulsen H., Cellier P., Cape J.N., Horvath L., Loreto F., Niinemets U., Palmer P.I., Rinne J., Misztal P., Nemitz E., Nilsson D., Pryor S., Gallagher M.W., Vesala T., Skiba U., Brueggemann N., Zechmeister-Boltenstern S., Williams J., O'Dowd C., Facchini M.C., de Leeuw G., Flossman A., Chaumerliac N., Erisman J.W. 2009 - Atmospheric Composition Change: Ecosystems-Atmosphere interactions. Atmospheric Environment 43: 5193-5267.

Forster P., Ramaswamy V., Artaxo P., Berntsen T., Betts R. et al. 2007 - Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. In: “Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change”. D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis et al., Cambridge ed. S Solomon, Cambridge Univ. Press 53: 129–234.

Gerosa G., Finco A., Mereu S., Vitale M., Manes F., Denti A.B. 2009 - Comparison of seasonal variations of ozone exposure and fluxes in a Mediterranean Holm oak forest between the exceptionally dry 2003 and the following year. Environmental Pollution 157: 1737–1744.

Goldstein A.H., Hultman N.E., Fracheboud J.M., Bauer M.R., Panek J.A., Xu M., Qi Y., Guenther A.B., Baugh W. 2000 - Effects of climate variability on the carbon dioxide, water, and sensible heat fluxes above a ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada (CA). Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 101: 113–129.

Laisk A., Kull O., Moldau H. 1989 - Ozone concentration in leaf intercellular air spaces is close to zero. Plant Physiology 90: 1163-1167.

Manes F., Astorino G., Vitale M., Loreto F. 1997 - Morpho-functional characteristics of Quercus ilex L. leaves of different age and their ecophysiological behaviour during different seasons. Plant Biosystem 131 (2): 149-158.

Massman W.J. 1998 - A review of the molecular diffusivities of H2O, CO2,CH4, CO, O3, SO2, NH3, N2O, NO, and NO2 in air, O2 and N2 near STP. Atmospheric Environment 32: 1111-1127.

Monteith J.L. 1981 - Evaporation and surface temperature. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 107: 1–27.

Kurpius M.R., Goldstein A.H. 2003 - Gas-phase chemistry dominates O-3 loss to a forest, implying a source of aerosols and hydroxyl radicals to the atmosphere. Geophysical Research Letters 30 (7): 1371.

Paoletti E. 2006 - Impact of ozone on Mediterranean forests: a review. Environmental Pollution 144: 463–474.

Zhang L., Brook J.R., Vet R. 2002 - On ozone dry deposition, with emphasis on non- stomatal uptake and wet canopies. Atmospheric Environment 36: 4787–4799.




Copyright (c)



Creative Commons License

All texts reported in and all materials directly downloadable from this page are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.