Research papers

Explore inhabitants’ perceptions of wildfire and mitigation behaviours in the Cerrado biome, a fire-prone area of Brazil


Abstract


Fire represents an important natural feature of Brazilian landscape, especially in the Cerrado biome. The Cerrado is the economic livelihood of thousands of people from rural areas in Brazil. It is one of the most important hotspot of biodiversity in the world but also it is a fire-prone area thanks to the high flammability index of the vegetation. Residents and native people of this environment use fire very frequently. The majority of wildfires are caused by humans, though there are some aggravating natural factors affecting the risk, intensity and severity of wildfires. Since residents are continuously involved in fire suppression activities, understanding their perceptions is important for the decision makers who must assess the local capacity to preserve natural resources. This study explores perceptions about wildfire risk and fire mitigation behaviors within three municipalities of the state of Tocantins (Brazil). The study demonstrates that survey participants perceived wildfire risk as rather high, although the perceptions were complex and conflicting among interviewees. A wide range of confused perceptions about fire ignition and heterogeneous point of view have carried out form the survey. However, the residence of interviewees and their educational attainment result the variables that significantly (p-value <0.05) affect the inhabitants’ perceptions.

Keywords

perceptions; fire risk; mitigation behaviors; Cerrado; Brazil

Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12899/asr-1308

References


Alvares, C.A., Stape, J.L., Sentelhas, P.C., De Moraes Gonçalves, J.L., Sparovek, G., 2013. Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil 22, 711–728. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507

Batalha, M.A., Silva, I.A., Cianciaruso, M. V, França, H., de Carvalho, G.H., 2011. Phylogeny, traits, environment, and space in cerrado plant communities at Emas National Park (Brazil). Flora Morphol. Distrib. Funct. Ecol. Plants 206, 949–956. doi:10.1016/j.flora.2011.07.004

Beringer, J., 2000. Community fire safety at the urban rural interface: the bushfire risk. Fire Saf. J. 35, 1–23. doi:10.1016/S0379-7112(00)00014-X

Berkes, F., 2004. Rethinking community-based conservation. Conserv. Biol. 18, 621–630. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00077.x

Bond, W.J., Woodward, F.I., Midgley, G.F., 2005. The global distribution of ecosystems in a world without fire. New Phytol. 165, 525–538. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01252.x

Cachoeira, J.N., 2015. Caracterização das Queimadas e Incêndios Florestais no Estado do Tocantins no Período de 2003 a 2011. Universidade Federal do Tocantins.

Ceccon, E., Miramontes, O., 2008. Reversing deforestation? Bioenergy and society in two Brazilian models. Ecol. Econ. 67, 311–317. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.12.008

Certini, G., 2005. Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: A review. Oecologia 143, 1–10. doi:10.1007/s00442-004-1788-8

Champ, P.A., Donovan, G.H., Barth, C.M., 2013. Living in a tinderbox: Wildfire risk perceptions and mitigating behaviours. Int. J. Wildl. Fire 22, 832–840. doi:10.1071/WF12093

Corbin, J.M., Strauss, A., 1990. Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Qual. Sociol. 13, 3–21. doi:10.1007/BF00988593

Dondo Bühler, M., de Torres Curth, M., Garibaldi, L.A., 2013. Demography and socioeconomic vulnerability influence fire occurrence in Bariloche (Argentina). Landsc. Urban Plan. 110, 64–73. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.10.006

Eriksen, C., 2007. Why do they burn the “bush”? Fire, rural livelihoods, and conservation in Zambia. Geogr. J. 173, 242–256. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4959.2007.00239.x

Forzza, R.C., Baumgratz, J.F.A., Bicudo, C.E.M., Canhos, D.A.L., Carvalho Jr., A.A., Coelho, M.A.N., Costa, A.F., Costa, D.P., Hopkins, M.G., Leitman, P.M., Lohmann, L.G., Lughadha, E.N., Maia, L.C., Martinelli, G., Menezes, M., Morim, M.P., Peixoto, A.L., Pirani, J.R., Prado, J., Queiroz, L.P., Souza, S., Souza, V.C., Stehmann, J.R., Sylvestre, L.S., Walter, B.M.T., Zappi, D.C., 2012. New brazilian floristic list highlights conservation challenges. Bioscience 62, 39–45. doi:10.1525/bio.2012.62.1.8

Giongo, M., Batista, A.C., Cachoeira, J.N., Pereira, A.D., Viola, M.R., da Silva, D.B., Santopuoli, G., Barilli, J., Patriota, J.N., Sousa Pereira, I.M., de Souza Junior, M.R., 2014. Plano Operativo de Prevenção e Combate aos Incêndios Florestais do município de Dueré (TO). Gurupi (TO).

Grace, J., José, J.S., Meir, P., Miranda, H.S., Montes, R.A., 2006. Productivity and carbon fluxes of tropical savannas. J. Biogeogr. 33, 387–400. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2005.01448.x

Hardesty, Jeff and Myers, Ron and Fulks, W., 2005. Fire, ecosystems, and people: a preliminary assessment of fire as a global conservation issue. In The George Wright Forum, in: 22. pp. 78–87.

Hecht, S.B., 2009. Kayapó savanna management: Fire, soils, and forest islands in a threatened biome, Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek’s Vision. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-9031-8_7

Hoffmann, W.A., Adasme, R., Haridasan, M., De Carvalho, M.T., Geiger, E.L., Pereira, M.A.B., Gotsch, S.G., Franco, A.C., 2009. Tree topkill, not mortality, governs the dynamics of savanna-forest boundaries under frequent fire in central Brazil. Ecology 90, 1326–1337. doi:10.1890/08-0741.1

Hoffmann, W.A., Orthen, B., Vargas Do Nascimento, P.K., 2003. Comparative fire ecology of tropical savanna and forest trees. Funct. Ecol. 17, 720–726. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2435.2003.00796.x

IBAMA, 2009. Roteiro Metodológico para a Elaboração de Planos Operativos de Prevenção e Combate aos Incêndios Florestais, 978-85-7300-293-. Brasilia.

INPE, 2015. Monitoramento dos Focos Ativos por estado: TOCANTINS - Brasil [WWW Document]. URL http://www.inpe.br/queimadas/estatisticas_estado.php?estado=TO&nomeEstado=TOCANTINS. (accessed 6.25.15).

Klink, C.A., Machado, R.B., 2005. Conservation of the Brazilian Cerrado. Conserv. Biol. 19, 707–713. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00702.x

Klink, And, C., Moreira, A.G., 2002. Past and current human occupation, and land use, in: The Cerrados of Brazil: Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical Savanna. Columbia University Press New York, New York, USA, pp. 69–88.

Lehmann, C.E.R., Archibald, S.A., Hoffmann, W.A., Bond, W.J., 2011. Deciphering the distribution of the savanna biome. New Phytol. 191, 197–209. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03689.x

López-Santiago, C.A., Oteros-Rozas, E., Martín-López, B., Plieninger, T., Martín, E.G., González, J.A., 2014. Using visual stimuli to explore the social perceptions of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes: The case of transhumance in Mediterranean Spain. Ecol. Soc. 19. doi:10.5751/ES-06401-190227

Maezumi, S.Y., Power, M.J., Mayle, F.E., McLauchlan, K.K., Iriarte, J., 2015. Effects of past climate variability on fire and vegetation in the cerrãdo savanna of the Huanchaca Mesetta, NE Bolivia. Clim. Past 11, 835–853. doi:10.5194/cp-11-835-2015

McCaffrey, S., Toman, E., Stidham, M., Shindler, B., 2013. Social science research related to wildfire management: An overview of recent findings and future research needs. Int. J. Wildl. Fire 22, 15–24. doi:10.1071/WF11115

Mistry, J., 1998. Decision making for fire use among farmers in savannas: An exploratory study in the Distrito Federal, central Brazil. J. Environ. Manage. 54, 321–334. doi:10.1006/jema.1998.0239

Mistry, J., Berardi, A., Andrade, V., Krahô, T., Krahô, P., Leonardos, O., 2005. Indigenous fire management in the cerrado of Brazil: The case of the Krahô of Tocantíns. Hum. Ecol. 33, 365–386. doi:10.1007/s10745-005-4143-8

Mistry, Jayalaxshmi, Bizerril, M., 2011. Why it is important to understand the relationship between people, fire and protected areas. Biodiversidade Bras. 1, 40–49. doi:10.2307/302397

Myers, N., Mittermeler, R.A., Mittermeler, C.G., Da Fonseca, G.A.B., Kent, J., 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403, 853–858. doi:10.1038/35002501

Odhiambo, B., Meincken, M., Seifert, T., 2014. The protective role of bark against fire damage: A comparative study on selected introduced and indigenous tree species in the Western Cape, South Africa. Trees - Struct. Funct. 28, 555–565. doi:10.1007/s00468-013-0971-0

Patton, M.Q., 1990. Qualitative evaluation and research methods 2nd ed. SAGE Publications, inc.

Pereira Jr., A.C., Oliveira, S.L.J., Pereira, J.M.C., Turkman, M.A.A., 2014. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area. PLoS One 9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102380

Phalan, B., Bertzky, M., Butchart, S.H.M., Donald, P.F., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Stattersfield, A.J., Balmford, A., 2013. Crop Expansion and Conservation Priorities in Tropical Countries. PLoS One 8. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051759

Pivello, V.R., 2011. The use of fire in the cerrado and Amazonian rainforests of Brazil: Past and present. Fire Ecol. 7, 24–39. doi:10.4996/fireecology.0701024

Pivello, V.R., Coutinho, L.M., 1996. A qualitative successional model to assist in the management of Brazilian cerrados. For. Ecol. Manage. 87, 127–138. doi:10.1016/S0378-1127(96)03829-7

Ramos-Neto, M.B., Pivello, V.R., 2000. Lightning fires in a Brazilian Savanna National Park: Rethinking management strategies. Environ. Manage. 26, 675–684. doi:10.1007/s002670010124

Ribeiro, JF and Walter, B., 2008. As principais fitofisionomias do bioma cerrado in: Sano, SM; Almeida, SP; Ribeiro, JF Cerrado: Ecologia e flora, 2nd ed. Embrapa Informação Tecnológica, Brasilia.

Santos, A.J.B., Silva, G.T.D.A., Miranda, H.S., Miranda, A.C., Lloyd, J., 2003. Effects of fire on surface carbon, energy and water vapour fluxes over campo sujo savanna in central Brazil. Funct. Ecol. 17, 711–719. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2435.2003.00790.x

Silva, D.M., Batalha, M.A., Cianciaruso, M. V, 2013. Influence of fire history and soil properties on plant species richness and functional diversity in a neotropical savanna. Acta Bot. Brasilica 27, 490–497. doi:10.1590/S0102-33062013000300005

Silva, I.A., Batalha, M.A., 2008. Species convergence into life-forms in a hyperseasonal cerrado in central Brazil. Brazilian J. Biol. 68, 329–339. doi:10.1590/S1519-69842008000200014

Simon, M.F., Pennington, T., 2012. Evidence for adaptation to fire regimes in the tropical savannas of the Brazilian Cerrado. Int. J. Plant Sci. 173, 711–723. doi:10.1086/665973

SPSS - Statistical Package for Social Science Inc, 2006.

Strauss, A., Corbin, J., 1994. Grounded theory methodology. Handb. Qual. Res. 17, 273–285.

Valente, C.R., Latrubesse, E.M., Ferreira, L.G., 2013. Relationships among vegetation, geomorphology and hydrology in the Bananal Island tropical wetlands, Araguaia River basin, Central Brazil. J. South Am. Earth Sci. 46, 150–160. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2012.12.003

Welch, J.R., Brondízio, E.S., Hetrick, S.S., Coimbra Jr., C.E.A., 2013. Indigenous burning as conservation practice: Neotropical savanna recovery amid agribusiness deforestation in Central Brazil. PLoS One 8. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081226

Wittich, K.-P., Müller, T., 2009. An experiment to test the potential for glass fragments to ignite wildland fuels. Int. J. Wildl. Fire 18, 885–891. doi:10.1071/WF08069

Xanthopoulos, G., Ghosn, D., Kazakis, G., 2006. Investigation of the wind speed threshold above which discarded cigarettes are likely to be moved by the wind. Int. J. Wildl. Fire 15, 567–576. doi:10.1071/WF05080




Copyright (c) 2017 Giovanni Santopuoli, JADER NUNES CACHOEIRA, Marco Marchetti, MARCELO RIBEIRO VIOLA, Marcos Giongo

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License

All texts reported in and all materials directly downloadable from this page are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.